For those of you interested in finding out more about the topics discussed in this paper - find below the full reading list submitted alongside the original thesis.

Please be aware that these have only been sorted chronologically - if you are looking for additional papers relevant to particular dramas, idols or wider issues, it might be an idea to use the original paper as a guide. Earlier chapters focus more on gender relations and masculinity, whilst the later case studies talk a lot more about the two particular dramas

AFP, 2014. Controversial TV Drama on Orphanages Goes Ahead Without Sponsors. Japan Today [online]. Available from: [accessed 20 June 2015].

Akcasu, A., 2014.  Is Japanese TV Really as Bad as its Reputation? Japan Today [online]. Available from: [accessed 24 July 2015].

Aoyagi, H., 2005. Islands of Eight Million Smiles: Idol Performances and Symbolic Production in Contemporary Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Asian Centre

Arima, A., 2003. Gender Stereotypes in Japanese Television Advertisements. Sex Roles, 49 (1/2), p. 81-91

Atoh, M., 2008. Japan’s Population Growth during the Past 100 Years. In: Coulmas, F., Conrad, H., Schad-Seifert, A. & G. Vogt, The Demographic Challenge: A Handbook about Japan. Leiden: Koninklijke, p. 5-25

Baran, S. & D. Davis, 2015. Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, Ferment, and Future. 7th ed. Stanford: Cengage

Belim, C., 2014. Narrative Structure Analysis of the 2012 Emmy Nominees for Drama TV Series: What Does the Pilot Episode Reveal? In: Marinescu, V., Branea, S. & B. Mitu, Contemporary Television Series: Narrative Structures and Audience Perception. Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, p. 59-94

Bellah, R., 2003. Imagining Japan: The Japanese Tradition and Its Modern Interpretation. California: University of California Press

Brasor, P., 2010. ‘Freeter’ drama reflects Japan’s income gap. Japan Times [online]. Available from: [accessed 31 July 2015].

Brinton, M., 1992. Christmas Cakes and Wedding Cakes: The Social Organization of Japanese Women’s Life Course. In: Lebra, T., Japanese Social Organization. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, p. 79-107

Brunt, R., 1992. Engaging with the Popular: Audiences for Mass Culture and What to Say about Them. In: Grossberg, L., Nelson, C. & P. Treichler, Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, p. 69-81

Buckley, S., 2002. The Encyclopaedia of Contemporary Japanese Culture. London: Routledge

Butler, J., 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Oxon: Routledge

Buzzer Beat. ブザー・ビート~崖っぷちのヒーロー, 2009. [Television Series]. Nakano Toshiyuki. Toyko: Fuji TV. July 13 2009 – September 21 2009

Chant, S. & M. Gutmann, 2000. Mainstreaming Men into Gender and Development: Debates, Reflections and Experiences. Oxford: Oxfam Working Papers

Charlebois, J., 2015. Herbivore Masculinity: Opposition or Accommodation to Hegemonic Masculinity? In: Jackson, S., Routledge International Handbook of Race, Class and Gender. New York: Routledge, p. 117-134

Charlebois, J., 2013. Japanese Femininities. Oxon: Routledge

Chen, S., 2012. The Rise of Soushokukei Danshi Masculinity and Consumption In Contemporary Japan. In: Otnes, C. & L. Zayer, Gender, Culture, and Consumer Behaviour. New York: Routledge, p. 285-310

Chun, J., 2012. Pro Wrestling and Crying Cowboys: American Influence on Early Japanese Television. In: Anderson, S. & M. Chakers, Modernization, Nation-Building, and Television History. New York: Routledge, p. 55-74

Chun, J., 2007. A Nation of a Hundred Million Idiots?: A Social History of Japanese Television, 1953-1973. New York: Routledge

Condry, I., 2011. Love Revolution: Anime, Masculinity, and the Future. In: Fruhstuck, S. & A. Valthall, Recreating Japanese Men. California: University of California Press, p. 262-287

Connell, R. & J. Messerschmidt, 2005. Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept, Gender and Society, 19 (6), p. 829–859

Connell, R., 2001. The Social Organization of Masculinity. In: Whitehead, S. & F. Barrett, The Masculinities Reader. Malden: Blackwell, p. 27-47

Connell, R., 1995. Masculinities. Cambridge: Polity Press

Cook, E., 2012. Still a Child? Liminality and the Construction of Youthful Masculinities in Japan. In: Dewey, S., Super Girls, Gangstas, Freeters, and Xenomaniacs: Gender and Modernity in Global Youth Cultures. New York: Syracuse University Press, p. 58-85

Dales, L., 2014. Suitably Single? Representations of Singlehood in Contemporary Japan. In: Aoyama, T., Dales, L. & R. Dasgupta, Configurations of Family in Contemporary Japan. Oxon: Routledge, p. 21-33

Darling-Wolf, F., 2004. Women and New Men: Negotiating Masculinity in the Japanese Media. The Communication Review, 7 (3), p. 285-303

Darling-Wolf, F., 2004. Virtually Multi-Cultural – Trans-Asian Identity and Gender in an International Fan Community of Japanese Star. New Media & Society, 6 (4), p. 507-528

Darling-Wolf, F., 2003. Male Bonding and Female Pleasure: Refining Masculinity in Japanese Popular Cultural Texts. Popular Communication, 1 (2), p. 73-88

Dasgupta, R., 2014, 'Salaryman Anxieties in Tokyo Sonata: Shifting Discourses of State, Family and Masculinity in Post-Bubble Japan'. In: Germer, A., Mackie, V. & U, Wohr, Gender, Nation and State in Modern Japan: ASAA Women in Asia. London: Routledge, p. 255-272

Dasgupta, R., 2013. Re-reading the Salaryman in Japan: Crafting Masculinities. London: Routledge

Dasgupta, R., 2010. Globalisation and the Bodily Performance of 'Cool' and 'Un-cool' Masculinities in Corporate Japan, Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific, 23 (X), p. 1-8

Dasgupta, R., 2009. The ‘Lost Decade" of the 1990s and Shifting Masculinities in Japan. Culture, Society and Masculinities, 1 (1), p. 79-95

Davis, D. & E. Yeh, 2004. VCD as Programmatic Technology: Japanese Television Drama in Hong Kong. In: Iwabuchi, K., Feeling Asian Modernities, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, p. 227-247

de Vera, J., 1968. Serious Television Drama. The Japanese Audience: Its Composition and Characteristics. Monumenta Nipponica, 23 (1/2), p.90

Deacon, C., 2013. All the World’s a Stage: Herbivore Boys and the Performance of Masculinity in Contemporary Japan. In: Steger, B. & A. Koch, Manga Girl Seeks Herbivore Boy: Studying Japanese Gender at Cambridge. Zurich: Lit Verlag GmBH, p. 129-177

Denison, R., 2015. Redistributing Japanese Television Dorama. The Velvet Light Trap, 75, (X), p. 58-72

Devasahayam, T., 2011. Globalization, Labour Force Participation and the Gender Gap. In: Brooks, A. & T. Devasahayam, Gender, Emotions and Labour Markets - Asian and Western Perspectives. Oxon: Routledge, p. 17-31

Di Mare, L. & V. Waldron, 2009. Researching Gendered Communication in Japan and the United States: Current Limitations and Alternative Approaches. In: Canary, D. & K. Dindia, Sex Difference and Similarities in Communication. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis. p. 188-211

Dissanayake, W., 2012. Asian Television Dramas and Asian Theories of Communication. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 7 (2), p. 191-196

Dunnet, P., 2011. The World Television Industry: An Economic Analysis. Oxon: Routledge

Easthope, A., 1990. What a Man's Gotta Do: The Masculine Myth in Popular Culture. New York: Routledge

Eaton, M., 1981. Television Situation Comedy. Screen, 22 (X), p. 61-89

Ehara, Y., 2013. Gender Studies in Sociology in Post-War Japan. International Journal of Japanese Sociology, 22 (X), p. 94-103

Ehara, Y., 2013. Japanese Feminist Social Theory and Gender Equality. In: Elliot, A., Katagiri, M. & A. Sawai, Japanese Social Theory: From Individualism to Globalization in Japan Today. Oxon: Routledge, p. 162-175

Ehara, Y., 2001. Gender Order. Tokyo: Keiso-shobo

Erhart, I. & H. Eslen-Ziya, 2015. Mr Incredible, Man of Action, Man of Power: What If He Loses It All? In: Jones, N. & B. Batchelor., Aging Heroes: Growing Old in Popular Culture. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, p. 157-169

Fiske, J., 2010. Television Culture. 2nd ed. Oxon: Routledge

Freedman, A. & K. Iwata-Weickgenannt., 2011. Count What You Have Now. Don't Count What You Don't Have: The Japanese Television Drama Around 40 and the Politics of Women's Happiness. Asian Studies Review, 35 (3), p. 295-313

Freeter, Ie wo Kau. フリーター、家を買う. 2010. [Television Series]. Arikawa Hiro. Tokyo: Fuji TV. October 19 2010 – December 21 2010

Frey, L., Botan, C. & G. Kreps, 1999. Investigating Communication: An Introduction to Research Methods. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Fruhstuck, S. & A. Walthall, 2011. Introduction: Interrogating Men and Masculinities. In: Fruhstuck, S. & A. Walthall, Recreating Japanese Men. California: University of California Press, p. 1-21

Fujimura-Fanselow, K., 1995. The Changing Portrait of Japanese Men. In: Fujimura-Fanselow, K. & A. Kameda (Eds.), Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives On The Past, Present and Future. New York: Feminist Press, p. 229–246

Funabashi, Y. & B. Kushner, 2015. Introduction. In: Funabashi, Y. & B. Kushner, Examining Japan's Lost Decades. Oxon: Routledge, p. xx-1

Fung, A., 2007. Intra-Asian Cultural Flow: Cultural Homologies in Hong Kong and Japanese Television Soap Operas. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 51 (2), p. 265-286

Futuresource Consulting, 2011. New Business Models will Restore Growth to Japanese TV Set Market. CEATEC [online]. Available from: [accessed 21 July 2015].

Galbraith, P., 2012. Idols: The Image of Desire in Japanese Consumer Capitalism. In: Galbrith, P. & J. Karlin, Idols and Celebrity in Japanese Media Culture. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers, p. 185-209

Gates, H., 1996. Planet Rap: Notes on the Globalization of Culture. In: Garber, M., Franklin, P. & R. Walkowitz, Field Work: Sites in Literary and Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, p. 55–66

Gender Equality Bureau, 2011. Women and Men in Japan 2011 – Facts and Figures. Gender Equality Bureau Cabinet Office [online]. [viewed 07 January 2013]. Available from:

Gerzema, J. & M. D’Antonio, 2013. The Athena Doctrine: How Women (and the Men Who Think Like Them) Will Rule the Future. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

Gill, T., 2003. When Pillars Evaporate: Structuring Masculinity on the Japanese Margins. In: Roberson, J. & N. Suzuki, Men and Masculinities in Contemporary Japan: Dislocating the Salaryman Doxa. London: Routledge, p. 144-161

Glasspool, L., 2012. From Boys Next Door to Boys’ Love: Gender Performance in Japanese Male Idol Media. In: Galbraith, P. & J. Karlin, Idols and Celebrity in Japanese Media Culture. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 113-131

Gossmann, H. & G. Kirsch, 2014. Nostalgia for ‘Asian’ Traditions and Energy – Encounters with Chinese and Koreans in Japanese TV Dramas. OICD [online]. Available from: [accessed 18 July 2015].

Gossmann, H., 2000. New Role Models for Men and Women? Gender in Japanese TV Dramas. In: Craig, T., Japan Pop! Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. New York: M. E. Sharpe, p. 207-222

Grosz, E., 1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Gwynne, J., 2013. Japan, Post-Feminism and the Consumption of Sexual(ised) Schoolgirls in Male-Authored Contemporary Manga. Feminist Theory, 14 (3), p. 325-343

Hagiwara, S., 1995. Rise and Fall of Foreign Programs in Japanese Television. Keio Communication Review, 17 (X), p. 3–26

Hall, S., 2003. Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: SAGE Publications Ltd

Hara, Y., Tomomune, Y. & M. Shigemori, 2004. Categorization of Japanese TV Viewers Based on Program Genres They Watch. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 14 (1), p. 87-117

Harrington, I., 2007. Discources of Schooling, Constructions of Masculinity, and Boy’s Noncompletion of Secondary School in North Queensland, Australia. In: Lin, A., Problematizing Identity: Everyday Struggles in Language, Culture, and Education. Oxon: Routledge, p. 101-119

Harvey, A., 2009. The Herbivore’s Dilemma. Slate [online] Available from: [accessed 17 July 2015].

Hester, J., 2014. Fujoshi Emergent: Shifting Popular Representations of Yaoi/BL Fandom in Japan. In: McLelland, M., Nagaike, K. & K. Suganuma, Boys Love Manga and Beyond: History, Culture, and Community in Japan. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, p. 169-189

Hidaka, T., 2011. Masculinity and the Family System: The Ideology of the Salaryman Across Three Generations. In: Ronald, R. & A. Alexy, Home & Family in Japan: Continuity and Transformation. New York: Routledge, p. 112–130

Hidaka, T. 2010. Salaryman Masculinity: Continuity and Change in Hegemonic Masculinity in Japan. Boston: Brill.

Hirahara, H., 1991. Home Drama and Rapid Economic Growth. In: Goto, K., Sata, M. & H. Hirahara, A History of Japanese Television Drama: Modern Japan and the Japanese. Tokyo: The Japan Association of Broadcasting Art, p. 111-146

Hirata, K. & M. Warschauer, 2014. Japan: The Paradox of Harmony. US: Yale University Press

Huet, C. & K. Iwabuchi, 2008. Introduction: East Asian TV Dramas: Identifications, Sentiments and Effects. In: Huet, C. & K. Iwabuchi, East Asian Pop Culture: Analysing the Korean Wave. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, p. 1-13

Huat, C., 2008. Structure of Identification and Distancing in Watching East Asian Television Drama. In: Huat, C. & Iwabuchi, K., East Asian Pop Culture: Analysing the Korean Wave. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, p. 73-91

Iida, Y., 2005. Beyond the 'feminization of Masculinity': Transforming Patriarchy With the 'Feminine' in Contemporary Japanese Youth Culture. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 6 (1), p. 56-74

Ishii-Kuntz, M., 2009. Working-Class Fatherhood and Masculinities in Contemporary Japan. In: Lloyd, S., Few, A. & K. Allen, Handbook of Feminist Family Studies. California: SAGE Publications, Inc., p. 192-205

Itakura, H. & A. Tsui, 2004. Gender and Conversational Dominance in Japanese Conversation. Language in Society 33 (X), p. 223–248

Iwabuchi, K., 2013. Korean Wave and inter-Asian Referencing. In: Kim, Y., The Korean Wave: Korean Media Go Global. Oxon: Routledge, p. 43-58

Iwabuchi, K., 2008. Symptomatic Transformations: Japan in the Media and Cultural Globalization. In: Segers, R., A New Japan for the Twenty-First Century: An Inside Overview of Current Fundamental Changes and Problems. Oxon: Routledge, p. 125-140

Iwabuchi, K., 2004. Feeling Global: Japan in the Global Television Format Business. In: Keane, M. & A. Moran, Television Across Asia: TV Industries, Programme Formats and Globalisation. London: Routledge, p. 9-21

Iwabuchi, K., 2004. Introduction: Cultural Globalization and Asian Media Connections. In: Iwabuchi, K., Feeling Asian Modernities: Transnational Consumption of Japanese TV Dramas. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, p. 1-23

Jin, D., 2003. Globalization of Japanese Culture: Economic Power vs. Cultural Power, 1989-2002, Prometheus, 21 (3), p. 335-345

Jones, M. & S. Ericson, 2007. Social and Economic Changes in Prewar Japan. In: Tsutsui, W., A Companion to Japanese History. Oxford: Blackwell, p. 172-189

Kawano, S., 2010. Nature's Embrace: Japan's Aging Urbanites and New Death Rites. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press

Kawashima, N., 2006. Advertising Agencies, Media and Consumer Market: The Changing Quality of TV Advertising in Japan. Media, Culture & Society, 28 (3), p. 393-410

Keane, M., Fung, A. & A. Moran, 2007. New Television, Globalisation, and the East Asian Cultural Imagination. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press

Kheel, M., 2008. Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc

Kim, J., 2014. Introduction: East Asian Television Drama: A Story of Booms, Fevers and Waves. In: Kim, J., Reading Asian Television Drama: Crossing Borders and Breaking Boundaries. London: I B Taurus, p. 1-27

Ko, Y., 2004. The Desired Form: Japanese Idol Dramas in Taiwan. In: Iwabuchi, K., Feeling Asian Modernities: Transnational Consumption of Japanese TV Dramas. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, p. XX

Kodate, N. & K. Kodate, 2016. Japanese Women in Science and Engineering: History and Policy Change. Oxon: Routledge

Koike, E., 2013. Gendering Knowledge in Discourse on Japan’s Herbivore Boys. Masters. Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas.

Kraidy, M. & P. Murphy, 2003. Media Ethnography: Local, Global or Translocal? In: Kraidy, M. & P. Murphy, Global Media Studies: An Ethnographic Perspective. New York: Routledge, p. 299-316

Kroo, J., 2014. Alternative masculinities: Soshokukei-danshi ‘Herbivore Men” and First Person Pronoun Usage. In: Collins, K. & R. O-Mochan, Journal and Proceedings of the Gender Awareness in Language Education, X (X), p. 5-29

Kumagai, K., 2012. Herbivorous Boy, Otaku, or Petit-Nationalist? Floating Japanese Men, Masculinity and National Integrity. In: Kolesova, E. & S. Wilson, Cool New Asia. Auckland: Unitec, p. 71-85

Larrain, S., 2005. Dorama: Japanese TV. Credo [online]. Available from: [accessed 18 July 2015].

Leaper, D., 2009. Culture Wise Japan: The Essential Guide to Culture, Customs & Business Etiquette. London: Survival Books

Lee, D., 2004. Cultural Contact With Japanese TV Dramas: Modes of Reception and Narrative Transparency. In: Iwabuchi, K., Feeling Asian Modernities: Transnational Consumption of Japanese TV Dramas. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, p. 251-275

Lie, J., 2004. Pop Multiethnicity. In: Weiner, J., Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan: Race, Ethnicity and Culture. Oxon: Routledge, p. 158-190

Light, R., 1999. Learning to be a Rugger: High School Rugby and Media Construction of Masculinity in Japan. Football Studies, 2 (1), p. 74-89

Lukács, G., 2010. Scripted Affects, Branded Selves. North Carolina: Duke University Press

Mackie, V., 2008. How to be a Girl: Mainstream Media Portrayals of Transgendered Lives in Japan, Asian Studies Review, 32 (3), p. 411–423

MacLachlan, E. & G. Chua, 2008. Chinese Viewers of Japanese TV Dramas in Singapore. In: Brunsdon, C. & L. Spigel, Feminist Television Criticism. 2nd ed. Berkshire: Open University Press, p. 273-287

Makinen, M., 1996. Embodying the Negated: Contemporary Images of the Female Erotic. In: Sceats, S. & G. Cunningham, Image and Power: Women in Fiction in the Twentieth Century. Oxon: Routledge, p. 41-51

Mamoru, I. & T. Kaori, 2004. The Representation of Femininity in Japanese Television Dramas of the 1990s. In: Iwabuchi, K., Feeling Asian Modernities: Transnational Consumption of Japanese TV Dramas. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, p. 25-42

Martin, I., 2013. AKB48 Member’s ‘Penance’ Shows Flaws in Idol Culture. Japan Times [online] [viewed 18 July 2015]. Available from:

Marz, D., 2012. The Jimusho System: Understanding the Production Logic of the Japanese Entertainment Industry. In: Galbraith, P. & J. Karlin, Idols and Celebrity in Japanese Media Culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 35-56

McAuley, T., 2009. What Can We Learn From Dorama? ELT News [online]. Available from: [Accessed 6 July 2015].

McCargo, D., 2004. Contemporary Japan. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

McCurry, J., 2009. Japan's ‘Grass Eaters' Turn Their Backs on Macho Ways. Guardian [online]. Available from: [accessed 16 August 2015].

McLelland, M., 2000. Male Homosexuality in Modern Japan: Cultural myths and Social Realities. Surrey: Curzon

McLelland, M. & R. Dasgupta, 2005. Introduction. In: McLelland, M. & R. Dasgupta, Genders, Transgenders and Sexualities in Japan. Oxon: Routledge, p. 1-15

McVeigh, B., 2006. Nationalisms of Japan: Managing and Mystifying Identity. Maryland: Rowman & Little Publishers, Inc.

Messerschmidt, J., 2011. The Struggle for Heterofeminine Recognition: Bullying, Embodiment, and Reactive Sexual Offending by Adolescent Girls. Feminist Criminology, 6 (X), p. 203-233

Min, Y., 2011. Last Friends , Beyond Friends – Articulating Non-normative Gender and Sexuality on Mainstream Japanese Television. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 12 (3), p. 383-400

Mita, M., 2011. Social Psychology of Modern Japan. Oxon: Routledge

Miyoshi, M., 1991. Off-Center. Cambridge: Harvard University Press

Moeran, B., 1996. A Japanese Advertising Agency: An Anthropology of Media and Markets. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press

Mooney, S., 2000. 5,110 Days in Tokyo and Everything's Hunky-dory: The Marketer's Guide to Advertising in Japan. Westport: Quorum Books

Mori, M., Nakashima, Y., Yamazaki, Y. & H. Kurita, 2002. Sex-Role Orientation, Marital Status and Mental Health in Working Women. Arch Womens Mental Health, 5 (X), p. 161-176

Morioka, M., 2013. A Phenomenological Study of Herbivore Men, The Review of Life Studies, (4) X, p. 1-20

Mouer, R. & Y. Sugimoto, 1986. Images of Japanese Society. London: Kegan Paul International

Mulvey, L., 1989. Visual and Other Pleasures. London: Macmillan

Mulvey, L., 1975. Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Screen, 16 (3), p. 6-18

Muramatsu, Y., 2002. Gender Construction Through Interactions Between the Media and Audience in Japan. International Journal of Japanese Sociology, 11 (1), p. 72-87

Murata, Y., 2005. Gender Equality and Progress of Gender Studies in Japanese Geography. Progress in Human Geography, 29 (3), p. 260-275

Muroi, H., 2006. Semiotics Unbounded and Japan [online] [viewed 5 July 2015]. Available from:

Murphy, R., 2014. Japan and the Shackles of the Past. New York: Oxford University Press

Nagaike, K., 2012. Johnny’s Idols as Icons: Female Desires to Fantasize and Consume Male Idol Images. In: Galbraith, P. & J. Karlin, Idols and Celebrity in Japanese Media Culture. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 97-113

Nakano, Y., 2002. Who Initiates a Global Flow? Japanese Popular Culture in Asia. Visual Communication, 1 (2), p. 229-253

Nemoto, K., 2012. Long Working Hours and the Corporate Gender Divide in Japan. Gender, Work & Organization, 20 (5), p.512-527

Nippon, 2015. Will TV Be Dethroned as Japan’s Entertainment King? Nippon [online]. Available from: [accessed 18 July 2015].

Nishiyama, T., 1975. Validation of the CPI Femininity Scale in Japan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 6 (X), p. 482-489

Noack, C., 2014. Does Mass Media Really Provide “New” Knowledge? Non-Fiction Publications About The Japanese Grass Eating Men (sōshoku danshi) As An Example. XVIII World Congress of Sociology. Facing an Unequal World: Challenges for Global Sociology,

Nozaki, Y., 2009. Orientalism, the West and Non-West Binary, and Postcolonial Perspectives in Cross-Cultural Research and Education. In: Apple, M., Au, W. & L. Gandin, The Routledge International Handbook of Critical Education. New York: Routledge, p. 482-491

NTV, 2007. NTV Annual Report 2007. NTV [online]. Available from: [accessed 18 July 2015].

O’Neill, P., 2007. First Sight: Kazunari Ninomiya. Guardian [online].Available from: [accessed 24 July 2015].

Ofcom, 2012. International Communications Market Report 2012 – Television & Audio-Visual. Ofcom [online]. Available from: [accessed 7 July 2015].

Okamoto, S., 2004. Ideology in linguistic practice and analysis: gender and politeness in Japanese revisited. In: Okamoto, S. & S. Smith, Japanese Language, Gender and Ideology. Oxford University Press: Oxford, p. 38–56

Painter, A., 1993. Japanese Daytime Television, Popular Culture, and Ideology. Journal of Japanese Studies, 19 (2), p.295

Penn, W., 2003. A The Couch Potato’s Guide to Japan: Inside the World of Japanese TV. Sapporo: Forest River Press

Perkins, C., 2015. Middle-Class Precarity, Sentimentality and Learning the Meaning of Work. In: Iwata-Weickgenannt, K. & R. Rosenbaum, Visions of Precarity in Japanese Popular Culture and Literature. Oxon: Routledge, p. 64-86

Peterson, R., 1994. Culture Studies Through the Production Perspective: Progress and Prospects. In: Crane, D., The Sociology of Culture: Emerging Theoretical Perspectives. Cambridge: Blackwell, p. 163-189

Praet, C., 2009. National Wealth or National Culture? A Multi-Country Study of the Factors Underlying the Use of Celebrity Endorsement in Television Advertising. In: Pelsemacker, P. & N. Dens., Advertising Research: Message, Medium, and Context. Antwerpen: Garant. P. 383-392

Prieler, M., Kohlbacher, F., Hagiwara, S. & A. Arima, 2010. Older Celebrity versus Non-Celebrity Television Advertising - A Japanese Perspective, Keio Communication Review, 32 (X), p. 5-23

Priest, S., 2015. Media Portrayal of Risk: The Social Production of News. In: Cho, H, Reimer, T. & K. McComas, The SAGE Handbook of Risk Communication. California: SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 208-216

Reeser, T., 2015. Concepts of Masculinity and Masculinity Studies. In: Horlacher, S., Configuring Masculinity in Theory and Literary Practice. Leiden: Koninklijke, p. 11-39

Reischauer, E. & M. Jansen., 1995. The Japanese Today: Change and Continuity. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard

Research Monitor, 2014. Consumer Electronics in Japan. Euromonitor International [online]. Available from: [accessed 24 July 2015].

Richie, D., 2003. The Image Factory: Fads & Fashions in Japan. London: Reaktion Books

Roberson, J., 2005. Japanese Working-Class Masculinities: Marginalized Complicity. In: Roberson, J. & N. Suzuki, Men and Masculinities in Contemporary Japan: Dislocating the Salaryman Doxa. London: Routledge, p. 126-144

Roberson, J. & N. Suzuki, 2005. Introduction. In: Roberson, J. & N. Suzuki, Men and Masculinities in Contemporary Japan: Dislocating the Salaryman Doxa. London: Routledge, p. 1-20

Rohn, U., 2010. Cultural Barriers to the Success of Foreign Media Content: Western Media in China, India and Japan. Frankfurt: Peter Lang GmbH

Ronald, R. & M. Hinokidani., 2011. Moving Beyond the Standard Family Model: The Emerging Housing Situations of Women in Japan. In: Kennett, P. & K. Chan, Women & Housing: An International Analysis. Oxon: Routledge, p. 133-149

Ronald, R., 2007. The Japanese Home in Transition: Housing, Consumption and Modernization. In: Hirayama, Y. & R. Ronald., Housing & Social Transition in Japan. Oxon: Routledge, p. 165-193

Rosenburger, N., 1992. Gender Roles: The Case of Japan. In: Cohen, M., Asia, Case Studies in the Social Sciences: A Guide for Teaching. New York: Trustees of Columbia University, p. 137-154

Ryoo, W., 2009. Globalization, or the Logic of Cultural Hybridization: The Case of the Korean Wave. Asian Journal of Communication, 19 (2), p. 137-151

Saito, S., 2007, Television and the Cultivation of Gender Role Attitudes in Japan: Does television Contribute to the Maintenance of the Status Quo, Journal of Communications, 57 (3), p. 511–31

Seaton, P., 2007. Japan's Contested War Memories: The 'Memory Rifts' in Historical Consciousness of World War II. Oxon: Routledge

Segers, R., 2008. A New Japan in the twenty-first century: Introduction to a Changing Nation. In: Seger, R., A New Japan for the Twenty-First Century: An Inside Overview of Current Fundamental Changes and Problems. Oxon: Routledge, p. 3-33

Seifi, P., 2011. Japanese Family Structure: Ideal vs. Modern Reality. Lingalift [online]. Available from: [accessed 31 July 2015].

Shibamoto, J., 1985. Japanese Women’s Language. Academic Press, New York

Shim, D., 2005. Globalization and Cinema Regionalization in East Asia. Korea Journal, 45 (4), p. 233-260

Shiraishi, N., 2008. Media Use in the Ageing Society. In: Coulmas, F., Conrad, H., Schad-Seifert, A. & G. Vogt, The Demographic Challenge: A Handbook about Japan. Leiden: Brill, p. 513–530

Shoji, K., 2014. I Heart Cherry Blossoms — The Rise of Japan’s Petit Nationalism. Japan Times [online]. Available from: [accessed 11 July 2015].

Slater, D. & P. Galbraith, 2011. Re-narrating Social Class and Masculinity in Neo-Liberal Japan: An Examination of the Media Coverage of the Akihabara Incident of 2008. Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies, X (X), p. 1-42

Smitsmans, J., 2014. The Resilience of Hegemonic Salaryman Masculinity: A Comparison of Three Prominent Masculinities. Masters. Lund University

Song, G. & D. Hird, 2014. Men and Masculinities in Contemporary China. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill

Standish, I., 2000. Myth and Masculinity in the Japanese Cinema: Towards a Political Reading of the Tragic Hero. Surrey: Curzon

Statistics Bureau, 2014. Statistical Handbook of Japan 2014. Statistics Japan [online]. Available from: [viewed 8 July 2015].

Statistics Bureau, 2011. 2007 Employment Status Survey: Summary of the Results. Statistics Japan [online] [viewed 02 February 2013]. Available from:

Stibbe, A., 2004. Disability, Gender and Power in Japanese Television Drama. Japan Forum, 16 (1), p. 21-36

Stronach, B., 1995. Beyond the Rising Sun: Nationalism in Contemporary Japan. California: Preager Publishers

Sugihara, Y. & E. Katsurada., 2002. Gender Role Development in Japanese Culture: Diminishing Gender Role Differences in a Contemporary Society. Sex Roles, 47 (9/10), p. 443-452

Sugihara, Y. & E. Katsurada., 2000. Gender-Role Personality Traits in Japanese Culture. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24 (4), p. 309-318

Suzuki, M., 1995. Women and television: Portrayal of women in the mass media. In: Fujimura-Fanselow, K. & A. Kameda, Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives On The Past, Present and Future. New York: The Feminist Press, p. 75–90

Suzuki, A., 1991. Egalitarian Sex Role Attitudes. Scale Development and Comparison of American and Japanese Women. Sex Roles, 24 (X), p. 245-259

Takahashi, T., 2010. Audience Studies: A Japanese Perspective. New York: Routledge

Takeyama, A., 2010. Intimacy for Sale: Masculinity, Entrepreneurship, and Commodity Self in Japan's Neoliberal Situation, Japanese Studies, 30 (2), p. 231-246

Toivonen, T., 2013.  Japan's Emerging Youth Policy: Getting Young Adults Back to Work. Oxon: Routledge

Tokuhiro, Y., 2010. Marriage in Contemporary Japan. London: Routledge

Tokyograph, 2011. Ninomiya Kazunari, “Freeter, Ie wo Kau” win Tokyo Drama Awards. TokyoGraph [online]. Available from: [accessed 27 July 2015].

Tolman, D. & L. Brown, 2001. Adolescent Girls’ Voices: Resonating Resistance in Body and Soul. In: Unger, R., Handbook of the Psychology of Women and Gender. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, p. 133-156

Toru, O., 2004. Producing (Post-)Trendy Japanese TV Dramas. In: Iwabuchi, K., Feeling Asian Modernities: Transnational Consumption of Japanese TV Dramas. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, p. 69-87

Tulloch, J., 1990. Television Drama: Agency, Audience and Myth. Oxon: Routledge

Valaskivi, K., 2000. Being a Part Of The Family? Genre, Gender and Production in A Japanese TV Drama. Media, Culture & Society, 22 (3), p. 309-325

Vig, E., 2012. The Herbivore and the Salaryman: New and Old Masculinities in Japanese Idol Productions. Masters. Lunds University – Department of Communication and Media

Vogel, E.F., 1963. Japan's New Middle Class: The Salary Man and His Family in a Tokyo Suburb. London: University of California Press

Wallace, B., 2007. The Story is Written on this Actor's Face. Los Angeles Times [online]. Available from: [accessed 3 August 2015].

Wee, C., 2010. The ‘New’ East Asia and Hong Kong Cinemas. In: Louie, K., Hong Kong Culture: Word and Image. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, p. 113-131

WEF – World Economic Forum, 2014. The Global Gender Gap Report 2014. World Economic Forum [online]. [viewed 07 July 2015]. Available from:

Wray, H., 1999. Japanese and American Education: Attitudes and Practices. Westport: Bergin & Garvey

Yamaguchi, M. 1995. Men on the threshold of change. In: Fujimura-Fanselow, K. & A. Kameda, Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives On The Past, Present and Future. New York: Feminist Press, p. 246–254

Yang, F., 2013. Remediating Japanese Dramas: Exploring the Politics of Gender, Class, and Ethnicity in Loser-Dog Queen in Taiwan. J Pop Cult, 46 (5), p. 1070-1091

Yoda, T., 2006. The Rise and Fall of Maternal Society: Gender, Labour, and Capital in Contemporary Japan. In: Yoda, T. & H. Harootunian., Japan After Japan: Social and Cultural Life from the Recessionary 1990s to the Present. North Carolina: Duke University Press, pp. 239-275

Yoshida, K., 2012. Acquisition of Cultural Competence through Visual Media: Perceptions of Masculinities in Japanese Society. Journal CAJLE, 13 (X), p. 135-152

Yoshimi, S., 2005. Japanese Television - Early Development & Research. In: Wasko, J., A Companion to Television. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, p. 540-558

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.